Duolingo Itallian: Food 1.3

15 Jan

More food, more meals and definitely more beer and bottles to drink it from. This food unit is really quite long, but not many words in each lesson. The main purpose of these lessons I think is to really get use to the sentence construction.

Food

Manzo: beef (masculine)

Burro: butter (masculine)

Torta: cake (feminine). Another work we see in English, but normally with the French spelling torte

Drinks

Birra: beer (feminine): very important! In fact a large chunk of this lesson seems to be knowing who drinks beer. Lei beve birra, Gli uomini bevono birra, Bevo birra….

Crockery

Ciotola: bowl (feminine)

Bottiglia: bottle (feminine): sure, not crockery in the traditional sense, but where else would you put it?

Meals

Colazione: Breakfast (feminine, might also be a plural)

Summary

Nouns

The breakfast (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La colarzione Singular The chocolate
le colazioni Plural The chocolates

The ciotola (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La ciotola Singular The bowl
Le ciotole Plural The bowls

The bottiglia (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La bottigilia Singular The biscuit
Le bottiglie Plural The biscuits

The butter (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il burro Singular The butter
I burri Plural The butters

The beer (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La birra Singular The beer
Le birre Plural The beers

The cake (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La torta Singular The cake
Le torte Plural The cakes

The beef (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il manzo Singular The beef
I manzi Plural The beefs

Duolingo Italian: Food 1.2

15 Jan

Food 2 is simply some more common foods and learning what the word for food is (cibo). For some reason some obviously phallic foods are denoted as feminine.

Food

Banana: Banana, simply enough (but oddly feminine)

Carota: Carrot (srtangely feminine as well)

Caramella: Candy/lolly (feminine, but at least this makes sense)

Frutta: fruit (feminine)

Fagiolo: bean (masculine, I suppose it depends on how long the bean is).

Cibo: food (masculine)

Crockery

Piatto: plate (singular masculine)

 

Summary

Nouns

The carrot (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La carota Singular The carrot
Le carote Plural The carrots

The candy (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La caramella Singular The lolly
Le caramelle Plural The lollies

The fruit (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La frutta Singular The fruit
Le frutte Plural The fruit

The food (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il cibo Singular The food
I cibi Plural The food

The banana (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La banana Singular The banana
Le banane Plural The bananas

The bean (feminine)

Article noun plural English
Il fagiolo Singular The bean
I fagioli Plural The beans

The plate (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il piatto Singular The plate
I piatti Plural The plates

 

Duolingo Italian: Food 1.1

14 Jan

Duolingo has redone their interface on both the website and mobile apps (well android, I have no ios devices). The biggest change on the mobile devices is that it is fast. Before you would submit an answer, it would think for a while and then tell you that you were correct (hopefully). Now it seems to do all the loading at the beginning so the classes go much more smoothly. I can’t tell you how much the web interface has changed: I never really used it. Although I really should: it gives you much more details and now there are bonus skills you can unlock with your lingots.

On todays lesson: food 1. In the food lessons you mostly learn the name of common foods and words related to food like cook, kitchen and cook.

Food

Cioccolato: chocolate (singular and masculine oddly enough)

Biscotto: biscuit (or cookie) (singular and masculine). Biscotti is a common enough word in English, which is actually the plural

Crema: cream (singular and feminine).

Gelato: icecream (singular and masculine). Another one that is common in English. I made the mistake of not translating the gelato to icecream as I’m so use to using it in English.

Milk

Latte: the milk (masculine)

Caffè: coffee (singular and masculine). Technically what in Australia we call a latte, is actually a caffè latte, or coffee milk

Crockery

Tazza: cup (singular feminine). This is a cup as in a tea cup or coffee cup. If you were feeling fancy you could say Il caffè nella tazza.

Prepositions

Al: at/to the. This is a bit of an odd one. In Italian when you have a phrase like “in the” (e.g. in il) or “at the”, you combine the two words to make one word. And then you have to be careful to get the gender and plurals all done properly as well. Al is one of them, it essentially means at the or to the (singular plural). In this context it is used when describing the flavour of something, e.g. crema al cioccolato is chocolate cream.

Summary

Nouns

The chocolate (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il cioccolato Singular The chocolate
I coccolati Plural The chocolates

The cream (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La crema Singular The cream
Le creme Plural The creams (?)

The biscuit (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il biscotto Singular The biscuit
I biscotti Plural The biscuits

The cup (feminine)

Article noun plural English
La tazza Singular The cup
Le tazze Plural The cups

The milk (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il latte Singular The milk
I latti Plural The milks (?)

The icecream (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il gelato Singular The gelato
I gelati Plural The gelati

The coffee (masculine)

Article noun plural English
Il caffè Singular The coffee
I caffè Plural The coffees

Prepositions

To the

Preposition noun Plural/Gender “Equivalent” Example Italian Example English
alle plural/feminine a + le Lui legge alle ragazze He writes to the girls
ai plural/masculine a + ie Lui legge ai ragazzi He writes to the boys
agli plural/masculine a + gli Lui legge agli uomini He writes to the men
all’ singular/feminine a + l’ Lui legge all’ acqua He writes to the water
allo singular/masculine a + lo Lui legge allo squalo He writes to the shark
al singular/masculine a + il Lui legge al ragazzo He writes to the boy
alla singular/feminine a + la Lui legge alla ragazza He writes to the girl

Resources:

I had to look up some of the plurals (the thought of a plural for milk to me is still odd, but then I’m happy to see coffees as being a plural. Maybe because a coffee is considered a discrete unit most of the time, where milk isn’t). I mostly used Zap Italian and Wiktionary.

Duolingo Italian: Phrases

13 Oct

This phrases topic is really two lessons, but I’m combining them into one post as there isn’t really much to distinguish the two, and I don’t really have much to write for different forms of the words. In these lessons you are learning basic greetings, farewells and some courtesy.

Greetings and farewells

Buongiorno: Good morning

Buonaserra: Good evening

Buonanotte: Good night

Ciao: hi/bye

Arrivaderci: good bye, although I suspect the literal translation would be closer to farewell as it doesn’t have the buon.., beginning

Courtesy and miscellanious

Per favore: please. Favore just by itself means favour, per favore is for a favour

Prego: beg, as in “please please please”. Similar to the English “I pray”, but nowhere near as formla

Grazie: thank you

Spiacente: sorry

si: yes

no: no

Non: not. Be a bit careful how you use non, as it is a bit different than not. In Enlish you would say I am not a man, but in Italian this would be “Io non sono un uomo”.

Duolingo Italian: Basics 1.3

13 Oct

The last of the first lot of basics! This lesson you learn a new vowel (drink) and some new nouns (water, bread and sugar). The main aim of this lesson is the familiarise yourself with the fact that Italian verbs have different forms depending on who is performing the action. This means that your verb changes depending if it is you, some one else, he/she is doing something, they (as in the plural) are doing something, or we are doing something. In this lesson we are just looking at the singular cases.

(as a side note, 50th post! And my original of this post some how disappeared when I published it)

Mangio: I eat. Verbs that are referring to something that I am doing, generally end is a o. This means you don’t need to bother saying Io mangio… as Mangio… gives you the same information

Mangi: You eat. Verbs ending in i are generally something that you are doing. Once again you don’t need to specify that tu is doing it.

Mangia: He/she eats.

Bevo: I drink

Bevi: You drink.

Beve: He/she drinks. Note that this does not end in an a like mangia. There doesn’t seem to be a nice rule like bevo/mangio and bevi/mangi

Pane: the bread. This is one of the few masculine words that end in an e.

Zucchero: the sugar. Note that it is lo zuccerho, not il due to the soft z sound at the beginning of the word

Summary

(These summaries include words that haven’t been covered yet, but I know it confuses me if I don’t see all the forms of the words to start of with, so I’m going to just list them here):

Nouns

The sugar (always masculine)

Article noun plural English
Lo zucchero Singular The sugar
Gli zuccheri Plural The sugars

The bred (always masculine)

Article noun Plural English
Il pane Singular The bread
I pani Plural The breads

Verbs

Mangiare (eat)

Person Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
io mangio Mangio una mela I eat an apple
tu mangi Mangi una apple(informal) You eat an apple
Lei mangia Mangia una mela (formal) You eat an apple
lui/lei mangia Lei mangia una mela She eats an apple
noi mangiamo Mangiamo una mela We eat an apple
voi mangiate Mangiate una mela (informal) They eat an apple
Loro mangiano Mangiano una mela (formal) They eat an apple

Mangiare (eat)

Person Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
io bevo Bevo l’acqua I drink water
tu bevi Bevi l’acqua(informal) You drink water
Lei bevi Bevi l’acqua (formal) You drink water
lui/lei beve Lei beve l’acqua She drinks water
noi beviamo Beviamo l’acqua We drink water
voi beviate Beviate l’acqua (informal) They drink water
Loro beviano Beviamo l’acqua (formal) They drink water

Additional resources for this post:

No additional resources used for this post: maybe I’m getting better at Italian?

 

Duolingo Italian: Basics 1.2

8 Oct

More of the same in this lesson. You learn a new verb (magia = eat), how to refer to people (lui = he, lei = she) and some connectors like sei = are. The progress is still nice slow and the sentence constructions are like what you expect in English.

Be careful with gender at this stage. Most of the multiple choice questions are trying to trick you up on this.

Mangia: This verb means eat. There are a lot of different

È: is or It is. With words like this, there is often an implicit understanding that there is an it somewhere, you only mention it when you want to emphasis it. A bit like with sono, you rarely say Io sono.

Lui: he

Lei: she. This is one of the few female related words that ends in i (normally used for masculine plural words). It might have something to do with the sound it makes (more like ay in this word, not like ee, in say ragazzi)

Tu: you (informal)

Sei: (are), as in you are. This is really the same as è but used when referring to some one else.

Summary

(These summaries include words that haven’t been covered yet, but I know it confuses me if I don’t see all the forms of the words to start of with, so I’m going to just list them here):

Verbs

Mangiare (eat)

Person Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
io mangio Mangio una mela I eat an apple
tu mangi Mangi una apple(informal) You eat an apple
Lei mangia Mangia una mela (formal) You eat an apple
lui/lei mangia Lei mangia una mela She eats an apple
noi mangiamo Mangiamo una mela We eat an apple
voi mangiate Mangiate una mela (informal) They eat an apple
Loro mangiano Mangiano una mela (formal) They eat an apple

Essere (you saw the singular last lesson, did lesson you saw the plural)

Person Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
io sono Sono una ragazza I am a girl
tu sei Sei una ragazza (informal) You are a girl
Lei sei Lei una ragazza (formal) You are a girl
lui/lei è Lei è una ragazza She is a girl
noi siamo Siamo le ragazze We are girls
voi siete Siete le ragazze (informal) They are girls
Loro sono Loro sono le ragazze (formal) They are girls

Note that Lei and Loro are the formal versions of you and they and should be captialised, note that sometimes  verb changes depending if you are using the form they (Loro sono) or informal they (Voi siete)

Pronouns

Lui (he)

Gender Plural Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
Masculine Singular Lui Lui è l’uomo He is a man
Feminine Singular Lei Lei è donna She is a woman
Either Plural Loro Loro sonno donne They are women

Tu (you)

Gender Plural Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
Either Singular Tu Tu sei l’uomo You are a man

Additional resources for this post:

About Italian: useful for checking what all the verb endings are

Duolingo Italian: Basics 1.1

4 Oct

Since that last post really helped me get my thoughts together, I’ve decided to do a series of posts on what you are meant to learn in each duolingo lesson and try to explain any issues that might arise or any trick I’ve learnt. I have no background in language, so most of this will be my explorations into a language (and therefore is not likely to be always right). Sort of what I do with maths research, but with an already well researched language. So to start with, Duolingo Italian, Basics 1.1.

In this lesson you learn basic nouns (man, woman, boy, girl and apple) , articles (the and a, both masculine and feminine) and a verb (is/am/are). In Italian, you always need the article for a noun. There are a few times where it appears you don’t need article, but often the article is hiding in another word (e.g. nel is “in the”, no additional article needed)

L’uomo: the man. L’ is the masculine article used when the noun begins with a vowel (it is also the feminine article for when the noun begins with a vowel). Uomo is man.

La donna: The woman. La is the feminine article used when the noun begins with a consonant, donna is woman. Think like prima donna (the main woman in an opera).

Il ragazzo: the boy, or the child. Il is the most commonly used masculine article and it is used with most consonants. Ragazzo is boy. Note that both uomo and ragazzo end in o: the is a good sign that the word you are dealing with is masculine (and singular)

La ragazza: the girl. The same feminie article as for donna, ragazza is girl. See how similar it is to ragazzo (boy?), that is because they are essentially the same word, but the a ending makes it feminine. You can think of it as the female child.

La mela: The apple. Mela is a femine word (it ends in a)

Un / una: these articles are equivalent to a or an in English. You use un when it is a masculine noun, such as uomo or ragazzo and una when it is a feminine noun, like ragazza, donna or apple.

Io: I. As in I am a girl (in Italian, Io sono una ragazza)

Sono: I am. Another trick I’ve learnt in Italians that that verbs that end in the letter o, often refer to yourself (i.e. if you mean to say I <verb> something, that verb will end in o). This means that you can (and often) just leave of the Io and just say Sono una ragazza.

Summary

(These summaries include words that haven’t been covered yet, but I know it confuses me if I don’t see all the forms of the words to start of with, so I’m going to just list them here):

Articles

The

Article Gender/plural Use Italian example
Il Masculine singular When the noun starts with most consonants Il ragazzo
L’ Masculine/feminine singular When the noun starts with a vowel L’uomo
Lo Masculine singular When the noun starts with s+ consonant, z, gn, x, y, ps, pn, i+vowel Lo squalo
La Feminine singular When the noun starts with a consonant La donna
L’ Feminine/masculine singular When the noun starts with a vowel L’insalata
I Masculine plural When the noun starts with most consonant and is plural (e.g. where you use il in the singular) L’insalata
Gli Masculine plural When the noun starts with a vowel or some consonants  and is plural (i.e. where you use l’ or lo for the singular) L’insalata
Le Feminine plural Anytime! (as long as it is a feminine plural noun) L’insalata

Nouns

The man (always masculine)

Article noun plural English
L’uomo Singular The man
Gli uomi Plural The men

The woman (always feminine)

Article noun Plural English
La donna Singular The woman
Le donne Feminine plural The women

The child

Article noun plural/gender English
Il ragazzo Masculine singular The child or the boy
La ragazza Feminine singular The girl
I ragazzi Masculine plural The children or the boys
Le ragazze Feminine plural The girls

The apple (feminine)

Article noun plural/gender English
La mela Feminine singular The apple
Le mele Plural The apples

Verbs

Essere (apparently, I haven’t yet seen this verb being used, apparently it means to be or to exists)

Person Present Example (Italian) Example (English)
io sono Sono una ragazza I am a girl
tu sei Sei una ragazza (informal) You are a girl
Lei sei Lei una ragazza (formal) You are a girl
lui/lei è Lei è una ragazza She is a girl
noi siamo Siamo le ragazze We are girls
voi siete Siete le ragazze (informal) They are girls
Loro sono Loro sono le ragazze (formal) They are girls

Note that Lei and Loro are the formal versions of you and they and should be captialised, note that sometimes  verb changes depending if you are using the form they (Loro sono) or informal they (Voi siete)

Additional resources for this post:

Cyber Italian: I was using this site to get all my articles and noun genders right.

Effective Language learning: This explained to me what was going on with formal and informal verbs

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